The "Livingston Code" A comprehensive system of criminal law which, while not adopted in the United States, is still influential today because it is the first complete penal code built on Jeremy Bentham's principles of codification. From a penal standpoint the code is important as well not only in terms of its completeness and order, but from its perspective of the advancement of crime prevention over punishment. " The Code]...will certainly arrange your name with the sages of antiquity."--Thomas Jefferson "You have done more in giving precision, specification, accuracy and moderation to the system of crimes and punishments 'than any other legislator of the age, and your name will go down to posterity with distinguished honor."--James Kent "You will be numbered among the men of this age who have deserved most and best of mankind." --Victor Hugo " Edward Livingston is] . . . the first legal genius of modern times."--Henry Sumner Maine Edward Livingston 1764-1836] graduated from Princeton College at the age of 17. He was a senator from New York and later Louisiana. He served as U.S. Secretary of State from 1831-1833.